. */ # Known/outstanding issues: # [COSMETIC] If the ping services list is empty, the log file will report "not pinging services - disabled by administrator" even if pinging is enabled. # adds an options page to the options menu function SUP_add_options_page() { if(function_exists("add_options_page")) add_options_page("UP Smart Update Pinger", "UP Smart Update Pinger", 5, basename(__FILE__), "SUP_show_options_page"); } # shows the options page function SUP_show_options_page() { global $logfile; $ping = get_option("SUP_ping"); $pinglog = get_option("SUP_pinglog"); $uris = get_option("ping_sites"); $forcedpings = false; $SUP_output_log=''; $pingservicesnow = "Ping Services Now!"; $deletelogfile = "Delete Log File"; if(isset($_POST["ping"]) && $_POST["ping"] == $pingservicesnow){ $forcedpings = true; SUP_log(SUP_ping_services($forcedpings).strftime("%D %T")."\tForced pinging services (Homepage)\n\t─────\n"); }elseif(isset($_POST["submit"])){ $uris = $_POST["uris"]; $ping = 0; if($_POST["ping"] == 1) $ping = 1; $pinglog = 0; if($_POST["pinglog"] == 1) $pinglog = 1; update_option("SUP_ping", $ping); update_option("SUP_pinglog", $pinglog); update_option("ping_sites", $uris); echo '

Options saved.

'; }elseif(isset($_POST["delete"]) && $_POST["delete"] == $deletelogfile){ $fh = @fopen($logfile, "w"); if(false === @fwrite($fh, strftime("%D %T")."\tLog file deleted\n\t─────\n")){ update_option("SUP_error", 1); }else{ update_option("SUP_error", 0); } @fclose($fh); } $checked1 = ''; if($ping == 1) $checked1 = 'checked="checked"'; $checked2 = ''; if($pinglog == 1) $checked2 = 'checked="checked"'; echo '

Ultimate Plugins Smart Update Pinger

Click here for installation instructions

Click here for usage instructions

Click here for updated versions

Click here for comments and suggestions

URIs to Ping

The following services will automatically be pinged/notified when you publish normal or future timestamped posts. Not when you edit previously published posts, as WordPress does by default.

This plugin also fixes an issue with the default extended ping programming in Wordpress and pre-2.1 versions of Smart Update Pinger (it now includes the url of the new post).

NB: this list is synchronized with the original update services list.

Separate multiple service URIs with line breaks:

Ping log

These are the last 100 actions performed by the plugin. In reverse chronological order for easier reading (latest ping first).

'; SUP_get_last_log_entries(500); echo '

'; } # telling WordPress to ping if the post is new, but not if it's just been edited function SUP_ping_if_new($id){ global $wpdb, $post_title; $SUP_output_log="\t─────\n"; $SUP_ping_result=''; $forcedpings = false; if(get_option('SUP_ping') == 1 and get_option('ping_sites') != ""){ # fetches data directly from database; the function "get_post" is cached, # and using it here will get the post as is was before the last save $row = mysql_fetch_array(mysql_query( "SELECT post_date,post_modified,post_title,guid FROM $wpdb->posts WHERE id=$id")); # if time when created equals time when modified it is a new post, # otherwise the author has edited/modified it if(!$row["post_title"]){ $SUP_output_log=strftime("%D %T")."\tNOT Pinging services (ERROR: YOU HAVE FORGOTTEN TO ENTER A POST TITLE) ...\n".$SUP_output_log; }else{ if($row["post_date"] == $row["post_modified"]){ $SUP_output_log=strftime("%D %T")."\tPinging services (New normal post: “".$row["post_title"]."”) ...\n".$SUP_output_log; $SUP_output_log=SUP_ping_services($forcedpings,$row["guid"]).$SUP_output_log; # Try commenting the line above, and uncommenting this line below if pinging seems to be out of order. Please notify the author if it helps! # generic_ping(); }else{ // Post has been edited or it's a future post // If we have a post title it means that we are in the normal WP loop and therefore it was an edit (not a future post) if($post_title){ $SUP_output_log=strftime("%D %T")."\tNOT Pinging services (Existing post was edited: “".$row["post_title"]."”) ...\n".$SUP_output_log; }else{ $SUP_output_log=strftime("%D %T")."\tPinging services (New timestamped post: “".$row["post_title"]."”) ...\n".$SUP_output_log; $SUP_output_log=SUP_ping_services($forcedpings,$row["guid"]).$SUP_output_log; # Try commenting the line above, and uncommenting this line below if pinging seems to be out of order. Please notify the author if it helps! # generic_ping(); } } } }else{ $SUP_output_log=strftime("%D %T")."\tNOT Pinging services (WARNING: DISABLED BY ADMINISTRATOR)\n".$SUP_output_log; } SUP_log($SUP_output_log); } # More or less a copy of WP's "generic_ping" from functions.php, # but uses another function to send the actual XML-RPC messages. function SUP_ping_services($forcedpings,$SUP_guid = '') { $SUP_output_log=''; #$services = get_settings('ping_sites'); #UP - 17.07.07 - get_option is newer/better then get_settings $services = get_option('ping_sites'); $services = preg_replace("|(\s)+|", '$1', $services); // Kill dupe lines $services = trim($services); if ( '' != $services ) { $services = explode("\n", $services); foreach ($services as $service) $SUP_output_log=SUP_send_xmlrpc($forcedpings,$SUP_guid,$service).$SUP_output_log; } return $SUP_output_log; } # A slightly modified version of the WordPress built-in ping functionality ("weblog_ping" in functions.php). # Original version: #function weblog_ping($server = '', $path = '') { #global $wp_version; #include_once(ABSPATH . WPINC . '/class-IXR.php'); #// using a timeout of 3 seconds should be enough to cover slow servers #$client = new IXR_Client($server, ((!strlen(trim($path)) || ('/' == $path)) ? false : $path)); #$client->timeout = 3; #$client->useragent .= ' -- WordPress/'.$wp_version; #// when set to true, this outputs debug messages by itself #$client->debug = false; #$home = trailingslashit( get_option('home') ); #if ( !$client->query('weblogUpdates.extendedPing', get_option('blogname'), $home, get_bloginfo('rss2_url') ) ) // then try a normal ping #$client->query('weblogUpdates.ping', get_option('blogname'), $home); #} # This one uses correct extendedPing format (WP does not), and logs response from service. function SUP_send_xmlrpc($forcedpings,$SUP_guid = '',$server = '', $path = '') { global $wp_version; $SUP_output_log=''; include_once (ABSPATH . WPINC . '/class-IXR.php'); // using a timeout of 5 seconds should be enough to cover slow servers (changed from 3 to 5) $client = new IXR_Client($server, ((!strlen(trim($path)) || ('/' == $path)) ? false : $path)); $client->timeout = 5; $client->useragent .= ' -- WordPress/'.$wp_version; // when set to true, this outputs debug messages by itself $client->debug = false; $home = trailingslashit( get_option('home') ); # The extendedPing format should be "blog name", "blog url", "check url" (the new URL), and "feed url". # Related Website(s) # http://www.weblogs.com/api.html # An example: # Someblog - Title # http://spaces.msn.com/someblog - Home URL # http://spaces.msn.com/someblog/PersonalSpace.aspx?something - Check/New URL # http://spaces.msn.com/someblog/feed.rss - Feed # Changed the following line therefore: # if($client->query('weblogUpdates.extendedPing', get_settings('blogname'), $home, get_bloginfo('rss2_url'), get_bloginfo('rss2_url'))) if ($forcedpings){ # If this is a forced ping it's better to use a regular ping for the homepage without an update URL (safer) if($client->query('weblogUpdates.ping', get_option('blogname'), $home)){ $SUP_output_log=strftime("%D %T")."\t► [Regular Ping] ".$server." was successfully pinged\n".$SUP_output_log; if (get_option('SUP_pinglog') == 1){ $SUP_output_log=strftime("%D %T")."\t►► Blogname: '".get_option('blogname')."'\n".$SUP_output_log; $SUP_output_log=strftime("%D %T")."\t►► Homepage: '".$home."'\n".$SUP_output_log; } }else{ $SUP_output_log=strftime("%D %T")."\t► ".$server." could not be pinged. Error message: “".$client->error->message."”\n".$SUP_output_log; } }else{ if($client->query('weblogUpdates.extendedPing', get_option('blogname'), $home, $SUP_guid, get_bloginfo('rss2_url'))){ $SUP_output_log=strftime("%D %T")."\t► [Extended Ping] ".$server." was successfully pinged\n".$SUP_output_log; if (get_option('SUP_pinglog') == 1){ $SUP_output_log=strftime("%D %T")."\t►► Blogname: '".get_option('blogname')."'\n".$SUP_output_log; $SUP_output_log=strftime("%D %T")."\t►► Homepage: '".$home."'\n".$SUP_output_log; $SUP_output_log=strftime("%D %T")."\t►► Updated : '".$SUP_guid."'\n".$SUP_output_log; $SUP_output_log=strftime("%D %T")."\t►► RSS URL : '".get_bloginfo('rss2_url')."'\n".$SUP_output_log; } }else{ # pinging was unsuccessful, trying regular ping format if($client->query('weblogUpdates.ping', get_option('blogname'), $home)){ $SUP_output_log=strftime("%D %T")."\t► [Regular Ping] ".$server." was successfully pinged\n".$SUP_output_log; if (get_option('SUP_pinglog') == 1){ $SUP_output_log=strftime("%D %T")."\t►► Blogname: '".get_option('blogname')."'\n".$SUP_output_log; $SUP_output_log=strftime("%D %T")."\t►► Homepage: '".$home."'\n".$SUP_output_log; } }else{ $SUP_output_log=strftime("%D %T")."\t► ".$server." could not be pinged. Error message: “".$client->error->message."”\n".$SUP_output_log; } } } return $SUP_output_log; } $post_title = ""; # Receives the title of the post from a filter below function SUP_post_title($title){ global $post_title; $post_title = $title; return $title; } # Log $logfile = ABSPATH . 'wp-content/plugins/ultimate-plugins-smart-update-pinger/ultimate-plugins-smart-update-pinger.log'; function SUP_log($SUP_log_output) { global $logfile; $logerror = 0; $fh = @fopen($logfile, "a"); if(false === @fwrite($fh, $SUP_log_output)){ update_option("SUP_error", 1); }else{ update_option("SUP_error", 0); } @fclose($fh); } function SUP_get_last_log_entries($num) { global $logfile; $lines = @file($logfile); if(get_option("SUP_error") == 1){ $fh = @fopen($logfile, "a"); if(false === @fwrite($fh, "")){ echo "Error writing log file (".$logfile."). Most likely your logfile (".$logfile.") is write-protected and no log data can be saved (change the rights of this file to 777), or alternatively this could mean that you have manually removed the log file, or that you have changed the directory or file name of the plugin (they both should be 'ultimate-plugins-smart-update-pinger')"; }else{ // Original: $lines = array_slice($lines, count($lines) - $num); // Modified to show in reverse order (easier for reading) $lines = array_reverse(array_slice($lines, count($lines) - $num)); $msg = ""; foreach($lines as $line){ $msg.=trim($line)."
"; } echo $msg; } @fclose($fh); }else{ if($lines === false){ echo "Error reading log file (".$logfile."). Most likely you have manually removed the log file, or alternatively this could mean that the logfile (".$logfile.") is read-protected (change the rights of this file to 777), or that you have changed the directory or file name of the plugin (they both should be 'ultimate-plugins-smart-update-pinger')"; }else{ // Original: $lines = array_slice($lines, count($lines) - $num); // Modified to show in reverse order (easier for reading) $lines = array_reverse(array_slice($lines, count($lines) - $num)); $msg = ""; foreach($lines as $line){ $msg.=trim($line)."
"; } echo $msg; } } } # ----- # adds a filter to receive the title of the post before publishing add_filter("title_save_pre", "SUP_post_title"); # adds some hooks # shows the options in the administration panel add_action("admin_menu", "SUP_add_options_page"); # calls SUP_ping whenever a post is published add_action("publish_post", "SUP_ping_if_new"); # calls SUP_ping_draft when changing the status from private/draft to published # add_action("private_to_published', 'SUP_ping_draft'); # removes the "WordPress official" pinging hook remove_action("publish_post", "generic_ping"); # activates pinging if setting doesn't exist in database yet # (before the user has changed the settings the first time) if(get_option("SUP_ping") === false) { update_option("SUP_ping", 1); } if(get_option("SUP_pinglog") === false) { update_option("SUP_pinglog", 1); } if(get_option("SUP_error") === false) { update_option("SUP_error", 0); } ?> Study shows animals can use symbols
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Study shows animals can use symbols

June 12th, 2008 by Kiyani ~ No Comments

A study by Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Italy shows that animals can use and comprehend symbols.

The research presents evidence of symbolic reasoning in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), a South-American species that live together in groups of 6 to 40 members.

In the absence of language, the comprehension of symbols is difficult to demonstrate. Tokens can be considered symbols since they arbitrarily stand for something else without having any iconic relation to their referent. Researchers assessed whether capuchin monkeys can use tokens as symbols to represent and combine quantities.

In the experiment, five captive-born capuchin monkeys were individually tested. Each subject was presented with a “choice apparatus”, constituted by a platform with two sliding trays where different quantities of food or tokens were available.

Capuchin Monkey Symbol Experiment
This photo depicts Robot, a male capuchin, who has just selected three black plastic tokens (each corresponding to one piece of dried apricot, food C) preferring them to one brass hook (corresponding to one cheerios, food A). Robot is exchanging the first plastic token for one piece of dried apricot.
Credit: Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Italy.

Each monkey chose between three different foods (conventionally referred to A, B and C), offered in variable amounts. Choices were made in two different contexts as follows:

  • In the “real” context, monkeys chose between the actual foods.
  • In the “symbolic” context, monkeys chose between “tokens” that represented the actual foods.

After choosing one of the two token options, monkeys could exchange their token with the corresponding food.

It was revealed that when one token B was presented against one to five tokens A, four out of ten capuchins relied on a flexible strategy that allowed to maximize their pay-off, i.e. they preferred one token B against one and two tokens A, and they preferred four or five tokens A against one token B.

Moreover, when two tokens B were presented against three to six tokens A, two out of six capuchins performed summation over representation of quantities. These findings suggest that capuchins can use tokens as symbols to flexibly combine quantities.

In short, though capuchins may not achieve adult-human-like symbolic competence, this study demonstrates that animal species relatively distant from humans have undertaken the path of symbolic use and understanding. It seems there is a continuum of language capabilities across species.

Categories: Science/Technology


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